Thursday, February 25, 2010

Mack Sennett's Fun Factory on TCM and Laughsmith sites

Mack Sennett's Fun Factory is honored to have received a recommendation from Laughsmith Entertainment, and is also mentioned in the Movie News on the Turner Classic Movies website.

Laughsmith Entertainment, of course, are the stellar folks who have given us several of the greatest DVD releases of the past several years--Industrial Strength Keaton and The Forgotten Films of Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (the latter of which is unfortunately, for the time being, out of print), and their documentary Stooges: the Men Behind the Mayhem. All are highly recommended.

And Turner Classic Movies should need no introduction for anyone who loves the steady flow of timeless motion pictures they've been streaming over cable, dish, FIOS, DVD, On Demand and any other communication portal (short of ham radio and radar) for the past 16 years and counting.

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

The Survival of Films Often Depends Upon Who Distributed Them - the Film Preservation Blogathon

When studying the survival rate of silent films, a curious pattern begins to emerge: success often equals failure, while failure often equals success. The “success” in this equation refers to the ability of a motion picture studio to weather all the changes, obstacles and competition thrown its way during the fledgling decades of the 1910’s and 1920’s, to survive into the 1930’s and beyond. “Failure” refers to the chances that films made by that same studio may or may not still exist.

Simply put, movie studios that continued to exist as an entity—and thus hold onto the copyrights of their films and the prints and master materials—often did not value their back catalog until it was too late. Universal Pictures—which was founded 100 years ago in 1910 by Carl Laemmle as the Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP)—dumped most of its silent films in the ocean. The majority of Universal silent features that survive today exist only because film collectors saved 16mm Universal “Show at Home” prints of those films. Paramount similarly disposed of many of their silents, and Fox lost virtually all of theirs in a 1937 New Jersey fire.

By contrast, film companies that went out of business during that same period often had their bones picked by scavenging opportunists, who reissued their films to theaters and downsized them to smaller gauges such as 16mm, 9.5mm and 28mm for home and non-theatrical use.  Though nitrate 35mm prints from major and minor studios, surviving and not-surviving companies, have been known to turn up (particularly in “end of the distribution line” outposts, where prints that were supposed to be returned to the distributor languished)—the bulk of the films released in non-theatrical gauges were produced by entities that no longer existed.

The silent films produced by Mack Sennett bear witness to this pattern. From 1912 to 1917, Sennett produced nearly 650 Keystone Comedies, distributed by the Mutual and Triangle organizations. All three of the companies in this equation—Keystone, Mutual and Triangle—had ceased to exist as functioning organizations by 1920. Many Keystone Comedies were reissued in the late 1910’s by companies such as W.H. Productions, Tower Productions and Keystone-Eagle Films. Many more Keystones reissues followed in the 1920’s and beyond (particularly those featuring Charlie Chaplin), and many of the films were subsequently issued in home gauges—with no one around to enforce their copyrights.

Actually, Mack Sennett and his bosses at the New York Motion Picture Company did not even begin copyrighting their films until late 1914 (in response to the bootlegging activities of film pirates). Ironically, when Sennett did begin copyrighting his films, he also submitted paper prints to the Library of Congress—even though this copyright requirement had ended in 1912. As a result, thanks to these paper prints, nearly every 1915 Keystone-Mutual survives today. Because of these prints, and the films that were reissued without legal challenge, around 300 Keystones survive today in one form or another.

Contrast this with the films Mack Sennett produced during the years 1917 to 1921 for his next distributor, Paramount Pictures—an entity which will celebrate its 100th anniversary in about two years. During this period, Sennett made 78 two-reelers for Paramount, which were sold back to Paramount at the end of Sennett’s contract. Most of them were likely later dumped into the sea by Paramount with its other silents. Paramount still owned the copyright, but if it couldn’t be bothered to preserve “more prestigious” feature films produced by the company itself, it certainly wasn’t going to doing anything with “lowly” two-reel comedies from an outside producer.

As a result, Mack Sennett’s Paramount era is his period with the worst survival rate. Maybe slightly more than a dozen of these 78 films survive today, many only in partial increments. Charles Tarbox is to be credited with saving a number of these (most of which came from a small handful of Sennett-Paramounts that were reissued in 1923) and releasing them in 16mm and 8mm through his company Film Classic Exchange. Others survive in film archives, though not all have been preserved. For instance, a nitrate 35mm print of the second reel (the first reel is not known to exist) of UP IN ALF’S PLACE—a wild 1919 comedy featuring Charlie Murray, James Finlayson, Kalla Pasha and Ben Turpin, which sends up cloak and dagger secret societies and Bolsheviks—exists at the UCLA Film and Television Archive, but is still awaiting a transfer to safety film.

Sennett followed his Paramount tenure by distributing through First National, a company that later merged with Warner Brothers. Unlike Paramount, Warner Brothers was active enough with the Sennett material to reissue footage from Sennett’s 17 two-reelers and several features owned by the company in a series of Vitaphone two-reelers in the 1940’s. These Vitaphone reissues constitute much of the extant material from this 1921-22 Sennett period (in addition to a few complete prints, mostly again courtesy Charles Tarbox).

From 1923 to 1929, Sennett distributed his final silent two-reelers through the Pathé Exchange—one of several companies that were an offshoot of the original French organization founded by Charles Pathé. Though the American Pathé company ceased to be an operating entity by the early 1930’s (excepting its newsreel brand, had been sold off as a separate entity), most of Mack Sennett’s Pathé comedies were issued for home and non-theatrical use under such labels as Pathé Baby, Pathéx and Pathéscope (many of them in 9.5mm)—whether in complete prints or excerpts. This has resulted in a survival rate of about 70% of Sennett’s 210 two-reelers for the company.

Pathé was also the distributor for Sennett’s chief rival Hal Roach, from 1915 to 1927, and the similarly good survival rate of Roach’s comedies from this period is owed to Pathé’s reissues and home releases. However, once Roach switched his distribution to the more powerful (and successful) M-G-M in 1927, survival rates of Roach silents drop. One of the major “holy grails” of lost silent comedy is the 1927 Hal Roach two-reeler HATS OFF—the only film starring Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy that is not known to survive. Pointedly, the film was released by M-G-M. Though a 1940’s catalog for a 16mm rental library lists HATS OFF among the available films, one can’t help but speculate that—had the film been distributed only a few months earlier by Pathé rather than M-G-M—HATS OFF might have a much stronger chance for survival (given Pathé’s more active role in home and non-theatrical distribution, and the resulting better chance for a stray print to be discovered).

Though comedic short subjects are often treated as second-class citizens to feature films in the battle for preservation, their unrelenting popularity with general audiences over the years—and the fact that many were produced by independent studios, through distribution channels that no longer exist—has resulted in their surviving at least in “home” gauges, if not 35mm.

But even Charlie Chaplin—the best known film performer of his generation—has at least one missing film in his oeuvre. The 1914 Keystone comedy HER FRIEND THE BANDIT still has not resurfaced in any form, though it was known to have been reissued several times (until such titles as MABEL’S FLIRTATION and THE THIEF CATCHER). For those intrepid explorers who are bravely and nobly embarking on the trail of lost films, I offer a possible clue. In 1978, one of the largest troves of nitrate films ever discovered were unearthed in the foundation of a swimming pool in Dawson City, Yukon. With this in mind, take a look at this August 25, 1916 announcement of a showing of HER FRIEND THE BANDIT—a full two years after its 1914 release—in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Might this print—which was being exhibited a full year after Keystone was no longer working with the film’s distributor, Mutual—have wound up in another pile of landfill buried beneath frozen tunda? Maybe not, but we can dream.

However, you don’t need to take a pick and shovel to Alaska (or the Yukon) to preserve our film heritage. You can do a lot more by contributing money to save the films that already exist—like that orphan reel of UP IN ALF’S PLACE—but haven’t yet been preserved due to a lack of funding. Do your part now by making a donation to the National Film Preservation Foundation. You can read more articles related to this week's Film Preservation Blogathon by visiting Self-Styled Siren and Ferdy on Films.

The National Film Preservation Foundation is the independent, nonprofit organization created by the U.S. Congress to help save America’s film heritage. They work directly with archives to rescue endangered films that will not survive without public support.

The NFPF will give away 4 DVD sets as thank-you gifts to blogathon donors chosen in a random drawing: Treasures III: Social Issues in American Film, 1900-1934 and Treasures IV: American Avant Garde Film, 1947-1986.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Noah Young at Keystone

his still from the 1916 Keystone THE VILLAGE BLACKSMITH appears on page 73 of Mack Sennett's Fun Factory. In the caption below it, I credit the film's star Hank Mann (right), Gonda Durand (center) and Tom Kennedy at the left. From my research sources, I knew Tom Kennedy was credited with playing the blacksmith in the film. And I listed Kennedy with some trepidation, as it did not look like Kennedy to me--however, I thought it might just be a weird angle.

However, my two learned comedy colleagues, Richard Roberts and Steve Rydzewski, each (independently) corrected me with their recognization that it is actually Noah Young--the strongman comedian best known for his work at Hal Roach Studios, particularly in the comedies of Harold Lloyd. In fact, Noah Young worked almost exclusively at Roach from 1918 until 1935, with only a few exceptions. After Richard first mentioned it to me, I could have kicked myself. I had seen Noah many times over many years, and by all rights should have recognized him. However, I was perhaps blinded to the fact that Young might have worked at Keystone prior to Roach. I had never seen him mentioned in any association with Mack Sennett or Keystone.

However, a quick look at his background puts it all into logical perspective. Noah Young was a record-setting weightlifter who competed for the Los Angeles Athletic Club, in the years prior to THE VILLAGE BLACKSMITH being filmed in January 1916. Mack Sennett resided at LAAC during this period, and hired many of the athletic club's boxers, swimmers and high-divers to work in his films, as performers and stunt men and women. On August 5-6, 1915, at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco (where MABEL AND FATTY VIEWING THE WORLD'S FAIR IN SAN FRANCISCO had been filmed five months earlier), Young broke two weightlifting records and captured first place in all five events in which he competed.

From there, he must have been hired by Mack Sennett. Though he appears to be playing a blacksmith in this still, it is not clear if he, in fact, replaced Tom Kennedy in the chief blacksmith role, or if perhaps Young plays a second blacksmith--perhaps a smaller role in which he had a chance to demonstrate his strength. Since the film is not known to exist, it is also unconfirmed as to whether Young actually ended up in the final release print. However, by mid-March, when the film was released, it had been announced that Noah Young had joined a circus--meaning his stay at Keystone was relatively brief. Though Young had much coverage in the Los Angeles Times from 1914 to 1916 for his LAAC weightlifting exploits, this circus announcement marked his last appearance in that paper until March 1918, making it likely that--between that time--Noah travelled the country performing his feats of strength under the big top and was not in Los Angeles.

Shortly after returning to Los Angeles in March 1918, where he re-established the Los Angeles Athletic Club as his training base of operations, Young began to appear in the comedies of Harold Lloyd. These one-reelers, such as THE NON-STOP KID and KICKING THE GERM OUT OF GERMANY, had always been believed to have been Noah Young's film debut. However, thanks to the eagle eyes of Richard Roberts and Steve Rydzewski, we now know that he may very well have made his first movie two years earlier--at Keystone.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Updates and Corrections

This blog was created, in part, to serve as a place to make updates, additions and corrections to details in Mack Sennett's Fun Factory when new information comes to light. Here is the first such installment:

1) MR. BRAGG, A FUGITIVE - cast additions
MR. BRAGG, A FUGITIVE (released on October 2, 1911), was one of Mack Sennett’s early directorial efforts for Biograph. At the time my book was completed, I had not been able to locate any prints or stills that would enable me to identify any cast members. Thus, it was listed with cast as "unknown" on p. 259 of the filmography.

However, my “silent comedy mafia” compatriots Steve Massa and Ben Model (curators of many great comedy film programs at New York’s Museum of Modern Art) recently viewed a rediscovered print of MR. BRAGG, A FUGITIVE at MOMA, and Steve reports that the cast includes Fred Mace, Vivian Prescott, Tony O'Sullivan, Dell Henderson and Donald Crisp. Thanks Steve and Ben!

2) Mabel Normand as director of MABEL’S LATEST PRANK, MABEL’S BLUNDER and HELLO MABEL
MABEL’S LATEST PRANK, MABEL’S BLUNDER and HELLO MABEL are three Mabel Normand-starred Keystone one-reelers which were filmed between late July and early September, 1914. As I explain in the introduction to the filmography, I largely used two primary sources for director credits for Keystone-Mutual comedies: 1) the New York Motion Picture Company negative record, and 2) the Keystone releases list. At the same time, I tried to avoid using any Keystone director’s credits from “American Film Index, 1908-1915,” which are wildly inaccurate with regard to Keystone films (something also covered in detail in the filmography introduction) and unfortunately still the source for many Keystone credits that appear on and other websites. However, the two primary Keystone sources for director’s credits are largely blank for the last half of the year 1914, leaving many of these directorial credits open to conjecture.

In my book, I use braces {} around any credits that were speculative, and in the cases of MABEL’S LATEST PRANK, MABEL’S BLUNDER and HELLO MABEL (on pp. 300-301), I speculatively credited them to Mack Sennett as director. This was based on the fact that the negative record did credit Sennett for the Mabel–starred films just before and after this trio (Mabel had directed herself earlier in the year, up until April). However, Mabel Normand historian and authority Marilyn Slater – who created and maintains the Looking for Mabel Normand website – reminded me of the fact that Mack Sennett was in New York attempting to sell TILLIE’S PUNCTURED ROMANCE during much of late July to early September. DUring this same time, trades such as Motography (August 29, 1914) and Moving Picture World (September 19, 1914) refer to Mabel Normand directing again, without providing any specific titles. But it was during this period that these three films were made.

So while the director’s credits for MABEL’S LATEST PRANK, MABEL’S BLUNDER and HELLO MABEL are still officially speculative (pending the discovery of primary source data to concretely confirm it), it is most likely that Mabel Normand did direct these three films, rather than Mack Sennett. Also, in the filmography entry for MABEL’S BLUNDER, the character, played speculatively by Helen Carruthers, was mislabeled as “Mabel’s Friend” when it instead should have read “Harry’s Sister.” And, I should add here that MABEL’S BLUNDER was recently selected to The National Film Registry of the Library of Congress, alongside 524 other important films.

3) Biography Section
Two updates - the bio for Irene Lentz (p. 522) states that she was in Paris for a couple of years, but it was actually a couple of months. And in the bio for Ben Turpin (p. 551), it says he died at age 65, but it should have said that he died at age 70. At the time I originally wrote the Turpin biography, his widely-believed birth year was 1874. Then my pal Steve Rydzewski wrote his outstanding multi-part article on Ben Turpin in the great Slapstick! Magazine (which Steve himself founded and edited) in which he revealed that Ben was actually born 5 years earlier in 1869. At that point I updated Ben’s birth year in my bio, but neglected to update the age he died.

4) Photo Captions
Lastly, a pair of last minute identifications on photo captions yielded some misspellings. In the caption on p. 98, Bert Roach’s first name was misspelled “Bery,” and on p. 112 Charlotte Mineau’s last name came out “Minear.”